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Associated with each subroutine call is a segment of stack called the frame.
The frame contains:
- passed parameters from the calling code segment,
- space for results returned from subroutine,
- the return address of the subroutine,
- saved register contents, and
- local variables used within the subroutine.
Within the subroutine, addressing is done relative to the frame pointer, which points to the return address.