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Microprocessor chips have some associated external circuitry, such as external clock circuitry.
Real estate limitations lead to reuse of pins.
Bus signals must be buffered to avoid excessive load on the microprocessor chip bus interface.
External memory and I/O interface requires
- timing analyses to match compatible chips and
- address decoding circuits to select specific chips in larger blocks of memory or I/O
Special operating modes are used for debugging.
Normal operating modes determine width of external data bus.