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Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Data Transfer
Asynchronous data tranfer occurs when the sender and receiver do not share a common clock signal.
Handshaking is used to coordinate asynchronous data transfers.
Handshaking can be implemented in hardware or software. (In software, by polling or interrupts.)
Serial Communications Interface (SCI) of the 68HC12 uses the RS-232 protocol in which handshaking occurs over TxD and RxD lines.
RS-232 supports error detection using parity bits.